Visconti 18 Milano Relatore: Professor Bruno Osimo Correlatore: Professor Vincenzo Bonini Diploma di mediazione linguistica 17 ottobre 1 The Dream is a law to itself; and as well quarrel with a rainbow for showing, or for not showing, a secondary arch. The Dream knows best, and the Dream, I say again, is the responsible party.
1.3. Il duplice significato di «metatesto»: scegliere dove convogliare il residuo
The first four points have been considered in earlier communications This presentation will address itself, in the main, to the last point. Since the properties of metaphor as revealed in the dream will be our concern, let us begin with a dictionary definition of the term: Metaphor.
The roots are from the Greek meta meaning over and phero, meaning bear. It comes into play in situations where an idea is genuinely new.
It has no name and there is no word to express it. Where the gap exists in situations of this sort it is through the use of metaphor that we can take a conceptual leap forward and establish an initial abstract position in relation to a new element in experience. Langer7 also notes the paradoxical features of this kind of abstract thought and this is a point of crucial significance in connection with dreaming.
She points out that the use of metaphor implies that abstract thinking is going on in a paradoxical sense. Metaphor is essentially a conceptualizing process but one that uses concrete imagery as the instrument for arriving at the abstraction. If we extend the concept of metaphor to include the visual mode, we may restate its essential characteristics as follows as a first step in exploring its applicability to dream phenomena: 1.
Metaphor involves demura e opzioni use of word or image in an improbable context.
This is done in order to capture and express a level of meaning that is freshly arrived at and in that sense new. The use of metaphor creates a greater impact and is more revealing of essential features than a literal statement.
Our main thesis is that dreaming involves rapidly changing presentational sequences which in their unity amount to a metaphorical statement major metaphor. Each element minor metaphor in the sequence has metaphorical attributes organized toward the end of establishing in a unified way an over-all metaphorical description of the new ideas and relations and their implications as these rise to the surface during periods of activated sleep.
In contrast to the brain-damaged patient in whom the power of abstraction is lost, the strategia di Igor Copernicus sulle opzioni binarie retains his abstracting ability.
The physiologically altered brain milieu, however, does exert a limiting influence. Let us now consider dreaming in the light of the three properties of metaphor described above.
In fact, this is one of the features distinguishing cognitive content during activated sleep from content recoverable during other phases of sleep. Incongruity of elements, inappropriate relations, displacement, are all well known attributes of dreams. Unless this were so, dreams would hardly be worth pursuing. It is the nature of the newness that has to be defined. It is precisely around this question that classical psychoanalytic notions about dreaming have been challenged by a host of critical comment converging from such disparate sources as experimentalists on the one hand8 and phenomenologists on the other,9 as well as from within the ranks of psychoanalysts themselves.
Incisioni storiche con date e luoghi di registrazioni diverse per ogni brano. Esse tuttavia appaiono ben bilanciate e senza salti d'atmosfera.
The model is that of energy transfer within a closed system with the dreamer limited in his expression of novelty to his own particular repertoire of artful camouflage. Strategia di Igor Copernicus sulle opzioni binarie novelty is drained out in the insistence on the role of unchanging instinctual energies linked to infantile wishes in accounting for the fact of dreaming. To arrive at an understanding of how they come about during the dream state we have to replace metaphysical speculation with a more 4 rigorous analysis of the psychological needs of the sleeping human organism and how the symbolic expression of these needs is influenced by the changes in brain milieu that occur during sleep.
The former relate to the content of dreams, the latter to their form. While asleep our brain is functioning differently and our psychological system is responsive to a different input and organized toward a different behavioral goal than in the waking state.
When there are sufficient quantitative changes in brain milieu a qualitative change comes about that exerts a tremendously significant limiting influence on the articulating psychological system.
Un incontro ufficiale per rivendicare davanti alla città la conduzione della trattativa che ha portato alla stipula dell'Accordo di programma della Ferriera di Servola. Il ministro triestino Stefano Patuanelli ha voluto che i rappresentanti di istituzioni e imprese si ritrovassero in Prefettura a Trieste per apporre la propria firma davanti a taccuini e telecamere.
Thought processes become bound to concrete presentations. The intact individual in the waking state is capable of thought processes reflecting events extended in time through a discursive mode of symbolic organization but he is at the same time capable of borrowing concrete expressions for intended metaphorical use. The brain-damaged patient cannot abstract and cannot employ metaphor.
The closest he comes to it is in the use of unintended metaphor or quasimetaphor. The dreamer is somewhere in between. He has not lost the power of abstraction, but a sufficient alteration in brain milieu has occurred to influence the way in which the abstraction is arrived at and the way in which it gains expression.
He is forced into a concrete sensory mode and, hence, the need to manipulate visual presentations toward the goal of a metaphorical explication of an inner state. I suggest that this necessity arises from physiological strategia di Igor Copernicus sulle opzioni binarie than psychological considerations.
- Tragedia a Mosca, un uomo spara sui passanti: almeno quattro morti
- Пол, украшенный мозаикой тонкой работы, оказался гладким и несколько упругим.
- tesi » lu-mar.it, il sito di Bruno Osimo » Page 3
- Самое главное было то, что она уводила его от дома.
Under the conditions of sleep, behavior is not and cannot be directed toward the outside world. Input channels close down and normal motor effector pathways are inhibited.
- Пока Человек перестраивает свой мир, этот корабль будет пересекать пропасти тьмы между галактиками и возвратится лишь через многие тысячи лет.
- И -- едва видел, потому что перебирал в уме один за другим шаги, которые следовало предпринять .
Consciousness, whether while dreaming or awake, cannot be divorced from the activity of the organism. The existence of a sensory mode of conscious expression does appear to be appropriate to the only effector system available to the sleeping organism, namely, the arousal mechanism or the reticular activating system referred to as the vigilance system by Hernandez-Peon The behavioral 5 response in this instance strategia di Igor Copernicus sulle opzioni binarie be an internal one in the form of an influence upon the level of arousal.
To develop this point further requires emphasis on the intimate relationship of conscious experience at a given moment to strategia di Igor Copernicus sulle opzioni binarie activity the individual is engaged in. Activity has a different complexion in the waking state than it has during activated sleep.
In the case of the dreamer, activity has to do with internal change or, more exactly, the potential for internal change, namely the possibility of a change from a state of activated sleep to one of full arousal. In the waking state all new afferent stimuli carry a double message to the central nervous system, one mediated through the reticular system and exerting an arousal effect and the other, which has an informational effect, through the direct sensory pathways to the cortex.
While the dreamer is awake the factor of arousal makes possible a more effective orientation to the informational aspects of the stimulus. The dual significance of afferent stimuli is preserved in the dreaming state but with two important differences.
An internal source of afferent stimuli is mobilized out of experiential data and the relative importance of the informational and arousal aspects of the stimuli is reversed. In the dreaming state the informational aspects serve the need to sustain and modulate the arousal level and, if necessary, bring about a full arousal effect.
The metaphor, through the properties of vividness, emphasis, incongruity, and dramatic presentation, is suited to do just that.